Chemical mechanical planarization/polishing (CMP) is a crucial technology used during the manufacturing of
multi-level interconnections of semiconductor chips and electronic devices1,2. Many process steps used in chip
manufacturing require planar (smooth) surfaces on the wafer to ensure correct pattern printing during the lithography that generates structures for the next layer. CMP is the key process used to achieve the surface
planarity required for accurate depth of focus (DOF) and lithography requirements, and to accurately support further etch steps for construction of multi-level interconnection wires, high-k replacement metal gate transistors, 3D stacked chips, 3D NAND memory cells, etc.